As vehicles added more complex electrical systems, point-to-point electrical wiring became heavy and expensive. In 1986, the Society of Automotive Engineers proposed the first in-vehicle network, referred to as the controller area network (CAN) (Corrigan 2008). The proposed network was envisioned as a simple network to reduce wiring and allow multiple microcontrollers to communicate on a single bus.
In recent years, increased reliability and technology advancements led to even more systems and functionalities of a common vehicle being converted from mechanical to electrical systems. New features, such as blind-spot detection, collision avoidance, and auto lane assist (Naranjo et al. 2008), have been added to enhance safety and security of modern vehicles. As a result, the number of electronic control units (ECUs) in a vehicle continued growing, and all of these ECUs rely on the CAN bus to communicate with each other.
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