At the turn of the 21st century, urban development has experienced a paradigm shift so that the quest for smarter cities has become a priority agenda, with the direct participation of industry, policy makers, practitioners, and the scientific community alike. The 2008 financial crisis, the exodus from rural areas, and the densification of urban centers coupled with environmental and sustainability concerns has posed enormous challenges to municipalities all over the globe. The United Nations predicts that the world population will reach 9.8 billion by 2050, a growth of 2.1 billion from the 2018 level. Almost all of this population growth will occur in urban areas and, consequently, stress already overloaded transportation systems.
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