Digital watermarking is a technique in which secret information is embedded inside a host signal, which may be an audio, video, or image signal. Watermarking is also defined as a branch of information hiding that is used to hide proprietary information in digital media. Digital watermarking may be used for authentication, integrity, or information security. In this article, we present a comprehensive survey on watermarking techniques based on their characteristics and applications, including visible, invisible, robust, fragile, and semifragile watermarking methods. The parameters that are used for the analysis of watermarking algorithms are peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error (MSE), embedding capacity, bit rate, and bit error rate (BER).
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